Sunday, July 3, 2011
Physics and the Formula 1 Cars
Formula 1 (F1) moves millions of dollars each season. In fact, a single car can exceed the value of one million dollars. And this value is just the car. Added to this figure the salary of the pilot, the granting of television broadcast advertising, transportation to the various circuits around the world. And marketing companies in the racing as Ferrari, McLaren, Honda, Renault, BMW and others.
Howeverso that all goes well during the race, the car must be well prepared. After all, the laws of physics can not take a vacation and do not favor this or that team!
It is best to seek to have them as allies. And this is done through the design of the car, the conditions of temperature and humidity at the time of the race, the wind direction and speed, engine performance, the material used in the composition of parts, etc..
Physics begins to show its strength at the start - when the speed of cars is still very low, because they started from a resting state. While the speed of the car is small, the air flowing beneath the vehicle is also very slow. As a result, the pressure on the car is not big enough to keep it stable on the road (this pressure on the car is treated as downforce by experts). Associated with super-traction provided by the engine, the car slips from one side to the other. Note that effect at the time of departure!
This could be reduced by making some adjustments in the car. But the teams must abide by the regulations imposed by the FIA. These rules lay down some rules like (height, weight, width, wheelbase ...). These combined effects leads to a curiosity: the distance between the axes, the mass, the length of the car are not considered, the vehicle could roll over during a turn or end of a great line because of a simple effect of mass transfer !
Another curiosity, the car "suffers attack" accelerations up to 5g at the time they make a turn at high speed! Wow! This is so reasonable that when braking at the end of a line, the pilot can tears rise spontaneously and achieve the display of the helmet! The dizziness and loss of meaning are also a reflection of intense acceleration or deceleration. To support such a move without acceleration, the driver is arrested for a special belt tightened to the maximum tolerable for him.
To keep this great bullet with wheels, full attention should be focused on the aerodynamics of the car. Therefore, the suspensions have a design in the form of inverted airplane wing, increasing the pressure on the car. It is believed that 2% of the aerodynamic force is from this fact. Everything is checked, the slope of the beak and wings are very important. And believe me, this tilt induces the presence of a very high downforce. So great, that within the nose of the car have a third suspension, more rigid and "intelligent" than the normal two, responsible for taking action to prevent the car from being crushed against the ground! The term "intelligent" use just makes sense. Are sets of springs, alloys, seals and other "parafernalhas" that are key to each team. Hence be hidden inside the nose of the car.
The brakes are operated by the pilot and must be done very careful not to lock the wheels. For, thus, the coefficient of friction decrease with soil. It would ruin the tire and the car could leave tangent to a point on the curve. Another effect: being smoother, have less adherence to start, losing precious seconds during the race. To reduce the speed of a car at 320km / h, discs and pads of carbon fiber are used. This material is lightweight, durable and efficient even when subjected to temperatures above 700 ° C. You can often see the red brake system, fruit of the warming during the race. The tires are no longer completely flat since 1998, as determined by the FIA. It was a measure to give more security in curves, ensuring better cornering grip. This adherence, complement, it is better when the tires are warm. Therefore, it is common to see riders "dancing" with the vehicle on the track when it is at low speed.
The cockpit is also designed with ultra-tough material. Capable of withstanding forces of up to 25 tons laterally. Therefore, it is not scared to walk out a pilot course of cell survival after a violent clash. Allied protection, many other parts of the vehicle are designed to be thrown so violently during a shock. This ensures the dissipation of energy at the time of impact, preventing this energy has to be received by the pilot, which may cause his death.
A Formula 1 car reaches approximately 156 km / h in first gear only! Spends less than 15.0 s to go from 0 to 320 km / h! In some teams, the slope of the rear wing is automatically adjusted to fit the drag force and act boldly to lift the car will not fly in a curve!
Another curiosity: the gears are changed automatically by the pilot in command of the electronic circuit that is under the steering wheel. They are small levers and buttons commanding a SuperSelling. The driver must also pay attention to wind direction. The team is monitoring all the time. If the wind is in favor of the motion of the car, the vehicle may limit your engine speeds reached at the end of a line, which is very risky. You should avoid working in the limit to reduce wear of parts.
The mass driver + car + fuel is also limited by the FIA. When full, the cars of Formula 1 can carry something around 115-125L, having an income that rarely exceeds 1.9 km / L. Also, to produce as much power! During periods of rain in a better pace is required, this increases performance a bit.
The control panel consists of some indicator lights potential problems in various systems. Again, springs, levers and lights help the pilot.
Observed during a race, which the pilot's eyes are almost level with the body of the car. No more, say the pilots. They are referenced to the contours of the tracks and mirrors.
And so will a car to the track. Electricity, magnetism, forces of friction, pressure, levers, springs, brackets, pasta, optical, inertia .... that stress huh !!!??? Than nothing. That is why throughout the years the engineers are aware of the behavior of the car. In a straight or curved, high or low speed. The dismissal of these variables can mean a complete loss of control of the car and end up on grass or gravel box, before the wall of tires ... this is the coefficient of friction help!
Labels: F1 Cars